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Example problem

Smart matching of human names

Are "Mikhail Goihman" and "Mikhael (Migo) Goikhman" the same person?

How about "Bill Gates" and "William Gates III"? Or "Peggy Green" and "Green Mary-Ann"?

The problem is more complex than it sounds, because it is not quite formal. One aspect is name nicks and mutations, like:

Peggy -> Margareth -> Martha -> Mary -> Maryanne -> Anna -> Roseanne -> Rosalyn -> Linda -> Melinda

Some aspects may be solved by a database of names and their relations, but there is certainly a place for heuristics. The problem may be even worse in other languages.

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